[37] Some planted trees at temples are believed to be over 1,500 years old. Beneath the sarcotesta is the hard sclerotesta (the "shell" of the seed) and a papery endotesta, with the nucellus surrounding the female gametophyte at the center. If you are taking ginkgo biloba supplements for memory impairment, cardiovascular function or poor circulation, take 120 to 240 mg per day in two or three divided doses. Ginkgo biloba, sometimes referred to as the maidenhair tree or simply “ginkgo” is the last remaining species of Ginkgophyta. The spelling pronunciation /ˈɡɪŋkɡoʊ/ is also documented in some dictionaries. Ginkgo Biloba Extract 2400 mg Per Veggie Caps 200 Capsules (Vegetarian,Non-GMO, Gluten Free & Extract 10:1) Supports Healthy Brain Function, Helps Support Memory* 4.6 out of 5 stars 1,265 $19.99 $ 19 . Rash and itching: In a man after repeatedly ingesting a natural product containing ginkgo and vinpocetine. [13][14] The leaves also contain unique ginkgo biflavones, as well as alkylphenols and polyprenols. Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species", World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, "The American Heritage Dictionary entry: ginkgo", 10.1666/0094-8373(2003)029<0084:ECITLF>2.0.CO;2, "History of Discovery of Spermatozoids In, "Is Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae) Really an Oviparous Plant? The leaves are unique among seed plants, being fan-shaped with veins radiating out into the leaf blade, sometimes bifurcating (splitting), but never anastomosing to form a network. [35][36] Whether native ginkgo populations still exist has not been demonstrated unequivocally, but there is genetic evidence that these Southwestern populations may be wild, as well as evidence that the largest and oldest Ginkgo biloba trees may be older than surrounding human settlements. [37], Ginkgo has long been cultivated in China. Might Protect and Enhance Cognitive Health. weak pulse, weak or shallow breathing, feeling like you might pass out. Ginkgo biloba has many health benefits. Ginkgo biloba extract may reduce the symptoms of anxiety and stress. The sperm have only a tiny distance to travel to the archegonia, of which there are usually two or three. The tree was nicknamed kakure-ichō (hiding ginkgo), derived from an Edo period legend in which Minamoto no Sanetomo is assassinated on 13 February 1219 by his nephew, Kugyō, who had been hiding behind the tree. Ginkgo has been studied extensively in diverse medical conditions. Use of this Web site does not create an expressed or implied physician-patient relationship. Begović Bego, (2011). The exact formulation of ginkgo extract in products available to consumers in the U.S. can vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. Kanji typically have multiple pronunciations in Japanese, and the characters 銀杏 used for ginnan can also be pronounced ginkyō. Studies on whether ginkgo can help tinnitus are mixed (14) (15) (55) (56), as are studies for other conditions such as ADHD (16) (17). In the U.S., many take ginkgo supplements in the belief that they will improve memory and sharpen thinking. Apart from their unique taste, Ginkgo biloba is a good source of nutrients, vitamins and minerals. It has various uses in traditional medicine and as a source of food. Although dietary supplements typically contain extracts of the plant's leaves, ginkgo biloba seeds are commonly used for healing purposes in traditional Chinese medicine. [12]:86–87, Extracts of ginkgo leaves contain phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins, flavonoid glycosides, such as myricetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and quercetin, and the terpene trilactones, ginkgolides and bilobalides. [40], Female cultivars include ‘Liberty Splendor’, ‘Santa Cruz’, and ‘Golden Girl’, the latter so named because of the striking yellow color of its leaves in the fall; all female cultivars release zero pollen. MPN is heat-stable and not destroyed by cooking. Those at risk included individuals with blood circulation disorders and those taking anticoagulants, such as warfarin or antiplatelet medication (e.g. Ginkgo biloba has been a key player in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. It is common in the southern third of the country. The first use as a medicine is recorded in the late 15th century in China; among western countries, its first registered medicinal use was in Germany in 1965. What is ginkgo extract? [66][67], Systematic reviews have shown modest positive effects in peripheral vascular disease,[68] vascular dementia tinnitus,[69] and age-related macular degeneration.[70]. Drug interactions with ginkgo biloba. When eaten in large quantities or over a long period, the gametophyte (meat) of the seed can cause poisoning by 4'-O-methylpyridoxine (MPN). [9][10], Engelbert Kaempfer first introduced the spelling ginkgo in his book Amoenitatum Exoticarum. For thousands of years, leaves from the Ginkgo biloba tree have been a common treatment in Chinese medicine. Since 1948, the badge of Tokyo University has been two ginkgo leaves (designed by Shoichi Hoshino), which became the university logo in 2004 with a redesign. Ginkgo biloba is an antioxidant-rich herb used to enhance brain health and treat a variety of conditions. This misspelling was included by Carl Linnaeus in his book Mantissa plantarum II and has become the name of the tree's genus.[4]. Spontaneous bleeding: In a few cases, including in the eye and brain, related to ginkgo supplementation. The level of these allergens in standardized pharmaceutical preparations from Ginkgo biloba was restricted to 5 ppm by the Commission E of the former Federal German Health Authority. That's why I want to ask you all what you think. Extreme examples of the ginkgo's tenacity may be seen in Hiroshima, Japan, where six trees growing between 1–2 kilometres (0.62–1.24 mi) from the 1945 atom bomb explosion were among the few living things in the area to survive the blast. Although almost all other plants (and animals) in the area were killed, the ginkgos, though charred, survived and were soon healthy again, among other hibakujumoku (trees that survived the blast). Although some studies have observed these properties, large trials do not support its use to improve memory. 5 out of 5 stars (574) 574 reviews $ 4.00. The ginkgo extract may provide relief for thos… Ginkgo for memory enhancement: a randomized controlled trial. [71][72] Additional side effects include increased risk of bleeding, gastrointestinal discomfort, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, dizziness, heart palpitations, and restlessness. [citation needed] The genus Ginkgo diversified and spread throughout Laurasia during the middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Prolonged bleeding: Among some healthy volunteers in a study that evaluated the interaction of ginkgo with antiplatelet drugs. [24], In 2020, a study in China of gingko trees up to 667 years old showed little effects of aging, finding that the trees continued to grow with age and displayed no genetic evidence of senescence.[26]. For centuries, it was thought to be extinct in the wild, but is now known to grow in at least two small areas in Zhejiang province in eastern China, in the Tianmushan Reserve. share. Check price at AmazonNutricost Ginkgo Biloba is pure, simple, and effective. [81], Female gametophyte, dissected from a seed freshly shed from the tree, containing a well-developed embryo, A forest of saplings sprout among last year's seeds, Species of seed plant in the family Ginkgoaceae, This article is about the tree. They are short and knobby, and are arranged regularly on the branches except on first-year growth. Because of the short internodes, leaves appear to be clustered at the tips of short shoots, and reproductive structures are formed only on them (see pictures below – seeds and leaves are visible on short shoots). If you have a known bleeding risk, you should be cautious about ginkgo possibly increasing your risk of bleeding. [32][33], Extinct Ginkgo adiantoides, or possibly a new taxon from the USA, G. cranei[34]. Ginkgo has been used in alternative medicine as a possibly effective aid in improving mental function or treating anxiety, dementia, leg pain caused by blood circulation problems, premenstrual symptoms, vision problems caused by glaucoma or diabetes, vertigo (dizziness), or a movement disorder (tardive dyskinesia) caused by taking certain antipsychotic drugs. Review of clinical, animal, and in vitro studies. This condition improved after ginkgo supplements were stopped. Consuming 100 gram of Ginkgo biloba offers 6 mg of Vitamin B3, 0.274 mg of Copper, 37.6 g of Carbohydrate, 0.328 mg of Vitamin B6, 0.22 mg of Vitamin B1, 124 mg of Phosphorus and 15 mg of Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid). Memorial Sloan Kettering does not assume any risk whatsoever for your use of this website or the information contained herein. Weinmann, S., Roll, S., Schwarzbach, C. et al. Statements made about products have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. Sphenobaiera has been used for plants with a broadly wedge-shaped leaf that lacks a distinct leaf stem. A potential drug-herbal interaction between. In ginkgos, as in other plants that possess them, short shoots allow the formation of new leaves in the older parts of the crown. May Help Treat Anxiety. The implications would be that G. biloba had occurred over an extremely wide range, had remarkable genetic flexibility and, though evolving genetically, never showed much speciation. Ginkgo biloba is an herb used to treat altitude sickness (prevention), cerebral vascular insufficiency, cognitive disorders, dementia, dizziness / vertigo, intermittent claudication, macular degeneration / glaucoma, memory loss, premenstrual syndrome, SSRI -induced sexual dysfunction, and … The ginkgo is classified in its own division, the Ginkgophyta, comprising the single class Ginkgoopsida, order Ginkgoales, family Ginkgoaceae, genus Ginkgo and is the only extant species within this group. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center makes no warranties nor express or implied representations whatsoever regarding the accuracy, completeness, timeliness, comparative or controversial nature, or usefulness of any information contained or referenced on this Web site. But this does not detract from its usefulness as a city tree unless the t… The relationship of ginkgo to other plant groups remains uncertain. Symptoms resolved following intravenous fluid infusion and discontinuation of G. biloba  (39). The flagella/cilia apparatus pulls the body of the sperm forwards. Seizures: In a few patients who were prone to seizures or on medications that lower the seizure threshold (e.g. Ginkgo Biloba A Global Treasure: From Biology to Medicine, Springer, 1997, 444p, T. Hori, A historical survey of Ginkgo biloba based on Japanese and Chinese classical literatures, Plant Morphology, 2001, 31, 31-40, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Approximate reconstructions by B. M. Begović Bego and Z. Zhou, 2010/2011. Although two trials suggest potential benefit with ginkgo in acute ischemic stroke (11) (12), a study in older adults noted increased stroke incidence (4), and a meta-analysis suggests evidence is generally weak with a high risk of bias (54). Clonazepam quiets tinnitus: a randomised crossover study with, Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled comparison of, Phase II study of combined 5-fluorouracil/, Hepatocellular carcinomas in B6C3F1 mice treated with, Inhibition of human CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylation by, Inhibitory Aromatase Effects of Flavonoids from, Spontaneous bilateral subdural hematomas associated with chronic, Spontaneous hyphema associated with ingestion of, Fixed Drug Eruption to Supplement Containing, Acute hemolytic anemia in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency complicated by. [citation needed]. Although some studies have observed these effects, large clinical trials do not support the use of ginkgo to improve memory or prevent memory loss. Proponents suggest that ginkgo biloba can protect against aging-related issues such as dementia by improving blood flow to the brain. It is the only surviving member of a group of ancient plants believed to have inhabited the earth up to 150 million years ago. For the Goethe poem, see, 1000-year-old ginkgo at Tsurugaoka Hachimangū, T. Hori et al. [53]. Ginkgos are large trees, normally reaching a height of 20–35 m (66–115 ft), with some specimens in China being over 50 m (160 ft). )[52] Individuals with a history of strong allergic reactions to poison ivy, mangoes, cashews and other alkylphenol-producing plants are more likely to experience allergic reaction when consuming non-standardized ginkgo-containing preparations, combinations, or extracts thereof. Favorite Add to Ginkgo biloba cuff bangle bracelet gold filled HeivaBijoux. During autumn, the leaves turn a bright yellow, then fall, sometimes within a short space of time (one to 15 days). Ginkgo evolved in an era before flowering plants, when ferns, cycads, and cycadeoids dominated disturbed streamside environments, forming low, open, shrubby canopies. Research shows that ginkgo can help protect against … Pretreatment with G. biloba extract induces expression of CYP3A proteins and mRNA and increases CYP3A activity (26). It makes a durable street tree where there is enough overhead space to accommodate the large size. It’s been used in traditional Chinese medicine for about 1,000 years. Clinical studies including the large Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory (GEM) study generally show supplementation with ginkgo does not improve cognitive performance or prevent Alzheimer’s disease or dementia (4) (5) (6) (7) (8). If you suffer from tension glaucoma, use 40 mg of ginkgo biloba daily for up to 4 weeks. [6], The genus name Ginkgo is regarded as a misspelling of the Japanese gin kyo, "silver apricot",[7] which is derived from the Chinese 銀杏 used in Chinese herbalism literature such as Materia Medica (日用本草 (1329) appearing at volume 6, page 8) and Compendium of Materia Medica (本草綱目 (1578)). The symptoms are allergic contact dermatitis[51][52] or blisters similar to that caused by contact with poison ivy. Ginkgo trees are a living fossil that provide great beauty in the landscape. Ginkgo biloba is one of the oldest living tree species. $16.37 $ 16. Ginkgo extract has proven benefits to elderly people. Ginkgo biloba is a large, deciduous tree that matures to 100' tall and is considered to be a living fossil. Ginkgo nuts are used in congee, and are often served at special occasions such as weddings and the Chinese New Year (as part of the vegetarian dish called Buddha's delight). You might also hear the ginkgo tree referred to as a living fossil. The seed is 1.5–2 cm long. Side effects of ginkgo may include headache, stomach upset, dizziness, palpitations, constipation, and allergic skin reactions. Ginkgo biloba is the most commonly ingested herb for brain health. The alternate spelling, \"Gingko\" is more in line with how people pronounce the name of the tree. It is attractive in appearance, but contains butyric acid[18] (also known as butanoic acid) and smells like rancid butter or vomit[19] when fallen. Ginkgo biloba, commonly known as ginkgo or gingko[4] (both pronounced /ˈɡɪŋkoʊ/), also known as the maidenhair tree,[5] is the only living species in the division Ginkgophyta, all others being extinct. Since its seeds are not protected by an ovary wall, it can morphologically be considered a gymnosperm. In using this website you agree that neither Memorial Sloan Kettering nor any other party is or will be liable or otherwise responsible for any decision made or any action taken or any action not taken due to your use of any information presented at this website. Leaves of long shoots are usually notched or lobed, but only from the outer surface, between the veins. This is a case where the plant's scientific name agrees with everyday common usage. It is also ineffective in preventing chemotherapy-associated cognitive dysfunction in breast cancer patients (23). The ginkgo tree is thought to be one of the oldest living trees, dating back to more than 200 million years. The soil it inhabits is typically in the pH range of 5.0 to 5.5. BMC Geriatr 10, 14 (2010). [14], Ginkgo branches grow in length by growth of shoots with regularly spaced leaves, as seen on most trees. Leaves are green both on the top and bottom[16] and have stomata on both sides.[17]. 93% Upvoted. The leaves contain a complex mixture of components. Ginkgo Biloba Herb, 1 Oz, Natural remedy, herbal remedy, alternative remedy, magickal herbs, metaphysical herbs, Goddess of Herbs GoddessOfHerbs. The Food and Drug Administration already bans ginkgo biloba from food and beverages, and the agency has repeatedly told drink manufacturers to remove ginkgo from its products. The popular cultivar ‘Autumn Gold’ is a clone of a male plant. The seeds and leaves have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat respiratory diseases, circulatory disorders, sexual dysfunction, and hearing loss. The disadvantage of male Ginkgo biloba trees is that they are highly allergenic. Japanese cooks add ginkgo seeds (called ginnan) to dishes such as chawanmushi, and cooked seeds are often eaten along with other dishes. Nutritional Value. Association between priapism and concurrent use of risperidone and. It is cultivated around the world for its medicinal properties and aesthetic value. Any questions regarding your own health should be addressed to your own physician or other healthcare provider. Hyponatremia: Several cases, which included symptoms of confused state, malaise, headaches, and fatigue. This ancient herb acts to enhance oxygen utilization and thus improves memory, concentration, and other mental faculties. Native to China, the tree is widely cultivated, and was cultivated early in human history. Low blood levels of sodium: Several cases which caused confused state, malaise, headaches, and fatigue. It is a member of a very old genus, with some fossils dating back 200 million years. Source: B.M. The species shows a preference for disturbed sites; in the "semiwild" stands at Tianmu Mountains, many specimens are found along stream banks, rocky slopes, and cliff edges. [48] In fact ginkgos arrived from China in the 14th century, and a 1990 tree-ring measurement indicated the tree's age to be about 500 years.[49]. Carl Linnaeus described the species in 1771, the specific epithet biloba derived from the Latin bis, "two" and loba, "lobed", referring to the shape of the leaves. Ginkgos are prized for their autumn foliage, which is a deep saffron yellow. These strategies are evidently important in the persistence of ginkgo; in a survey of the "semiwild" stands remaining in Tianmushan, 40% of the specimens surveyed were multistemmed, and few saplings were present. From radiation therapy to clinical trials to check-ins with your doctor, your care is made as convenient as possible. Studies on ginkgo in cancer patients are quite limited (3) (21), and secondary outcome data from the aforementioned GEM study does not support the use of ginkgo to reduce cancer risk (22). The use of Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts may have undesirable effects, especially in terms of drug interactions. The trees are easy to propagate from seed. Doses are based on the desired outcome. [28], The scientific name Ginkgo is the result of a spelling error that occurred three centuries ago. It is capable of sprouting from embedded buds near the base of the trunk (lignotubers, or basal chichi) in response to disturbances, such as soil erosion. [80] The logo of Osaka University has been a simplified ginkgo leaf since 1991 when designer Ikko Tanaka created it for the university's sixtieth anniversary. Reduces Altitude Sickness. Although it is widely held that fertilization of ginkgo seeds occurs just before or after they fall in early autumn,[15][20] embryos ordinarily occur in seeds just before and after they drop from the tree. In addition, the large GEM study did not find benefit with ginkgo for cardiovascular disease incidence or mortality (13). [35], Where it occurs in the wild, it is found infrequently in deciduous forests and valleys on acidic loess (i.e. [75], Ginkgo biloba leaves and sarcotesta also contain ginkgolic acids,[76] which are highly allergenic, long-chain alkylphenols such as bilobol or adipostatin A[77] (bilobol is a substance related to anacardic acid from cashew nut shells and urushiols present in poison ivy and other Toxicodendron spp. [24] The tree has a large genome of 10.6 billion DNA nucleobase "letters" (the human genome has three billion) and about 41,840 predicted genes[25] which enable a considerable number of antibacterial and chemical defense mechanisms. Our evidence-based analysis on ginkgo biloba features 298 unique references … They are borne both on the more rapidly growing branch tips, where they are alternate and spaced out, and also on the short, stubby spur shoots, where they are clustered at the tips. Tan, Meng-Shan et al. The remainder may have been ecotypes or subspecies. Studies have also confirmed its value in the treatment of depression in elderly people. Components of foods inhibit a drug exporter, human multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter 1. Acute hemolytic anemia: In a patient after receiving a ginkgo injection for dementia. Ginkgo interacts with several cytochrome P450 enzymes. 99 ($0.10/Count) The name 銀杏 was borrowed in Japanese イチョウ (ichou) or ぎんなん (ginnan) and Korean 은행 (eunhaeng), when the tree was introduced from China. 60 Count (Pack of 1) 4.6 out of 5 stars 456. It’s often used to treat mental health conditions, Alzheimer’s disease, and fatigue. Ginkgo's place in therapy for dementia seems limited, and a role in schizophrenia has not been established. Ginkgo is an herb also known as Ginkgo biloba, Abricot Argenté Japonais, Adiantifolia, Arbre aux Écus, Arbre du Ciel, Arbre Fossile, Bai Guo Ye, Baiguo, Extrait de Ginkgo… [20], The fertilization of ginkgo seeds occurs via motile sperm, as in cycads, ferns, mosses and algae. At the end of the Pliocene, Ginkgo fossils disappeared from the fossil record everywhere except in a small area of central China, where the modern species survived. An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by selected commercial herbal extracts and tinctures. Gingko Biloba, the latest fad with… hide. Because of its status in Buddhism and Confucianism, the ginkgo is also widely planted in Korea and in Japan since the 14th century;[38] in both areas, some naturalization has occurred, with ginkgos seeding into natural forests. Two ovules are formed at the end of a stalk, and after pollination, one or both develop into seeds. prochlorperazine, chlorpromazine, perphenazine, etc. It has been placed loosely in the divisions Spermatophyta and Pinophyta, but no consensus has been reached. Over-the-Counter Supplement Interventions to Prevent Cognitive Decline, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Clinical Alzheimer-Type Dementia: A Systematic Review. In addition, positive effects from earlier studies were not confirmed in more recent trials and some systematic reviews determined there was insufficient evidence on any benefits in adults with either normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment (9) (10). Ginkgos are popular subjects for growing as miniature landscapes known as penjing and bonsai;[46] they can be kept artificially small and tended over centuries. This Web site — Information About Herbs, Botanicals and Other Products — is for general health information only. Some people are sensitive to the chemicals in the sarcotesta, the outer fleshy coating. Hikers and mountain climbers often feel sick as they climb to greater … Ginkgo sperm were first discovered by the Japanese botanist Sakugoro Hirase in 1896. Symptoms resolved after IV fluids and discontinuation of product. [40], Many cultivars are listed in the literature in the UK, of which the compact ‘Troll’ has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit. Short shoots have very short internodes (so they may grow only one or two centimeters in several years) and their leaves are usually unlobed. ), ginkgo may have induced seizures. The first record of Europeans encountering it is in 1690 in Japanese temple gardens, where the tree was seen by the German botanist Engelbert Kaempfer. The tree is the official tree of the Japanese capital of Tokyo, and the symbol of Tokyo is a ginkgo leaf. [43] They rarely suffer disease problems, even in urban conditions, and are attacked by few insects.[44][45]. ", "Draft genome of the living fossil Ginkgo biloba", "Some trees can live for more than 1,000 years and scientists may have figured out why", "Genetic variation of Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) based on cpDNA PCR-RFLPs: inference of glacial refugia", "Evidence for the persistence of wild Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae) populations in the Dalou Mountains, southwestern China", https://e360.yale.edu/features/peter_crane_history_of_ginkgo_earths_oldest_tree, "Examples of Plants with Insect and Disease Tolerance", "Ma-Ke Bonsai Care Guide for Ginkgo biloba", "A-bombed Ginkgo trees in Hiroshima, Japan", https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements-ginkgo/art-20362032, "Ethnopharmacological Approaches for Dementia Therapy and Significance of Natural Products and Herbal Drugs", "Treatment for mild cognitive impairment: systematic review", "Assessment report on Ginkgo biloba L., folium", "The Use of Herbal Medicine in Alzheimer's Disease—A Systematic Review", "Ginkgo biloba extract for essential hypertension: A systemic review", "Ginkgo biloba for acute ischaemic stroke", "Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled comparison of ginkgo biloba and acetazolamide for prevention of acute mountain sickness among Himalayan trekkers: The prevention of high altitude illness trial (PHAIT)", "Ginkgo biloba for intermittent claudication", "Ginkgo biloba extract for age-related macular degeneration", "Effect of ginkgo and ginger on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects", "MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.)", "Ginkgo Uses, Benefits & Dosage – Drugs.com Herbal Database", "High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry Study of Ginkgolic Acid in the Leaves and Fruits of the Ginkgo Tree (Ginkgo biloba)", "Food poisoning by Ginkgo seeds through vitamin B, "An antivitamin B6, 4'-methoxypyridoxine, from the seed of Ginkgo biloba L.", https://www.u-tokyo.ac.jp/ja/about/public-relations/b01_05_01.html, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ginkgo_biloba&oldid=997990549, Plants used in traditional Chinese medicine, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 3 January 2021, at 06:15.

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